Beginning in the 1990s, Randy Garrison, Terry Anderson and Walter Archer from the University of Alberta developed the “Community of Inquiry,” a framework to guide online instructors to create a supportive atmosphere for learners.
For deep learning to occur, they noted that online instructors should create a sense of cognitive presence (expect learners to explore, integrate and apply new ideas), social presence (support open and risk-free communication with collaboration) and teaching presence (facilitate discourse, organizing and directing instruction). It must be noted that an investment of considerable time and thought (considering the need to carefully craft messages and select resources, as described above) guides online instructors to create and maintain this kind of supportive atmosphere, such as the framework of Community of Inquiry proposes.
The following strategies will ensure students are deeply connected to their learning materials, and can lead to success in the online learning environment:
- Encourage and anticipate collaboration and the exchange of ideas;
- Establish a series of supportive, open, extended, online conversations via discussion board threads, interjecting sensitive feedback and redirection periodically;
- Monitor and revise directions and the structure of course portals;
- Communicate periodically and sensitively with learners to address their questions and offer clarification of expectations;
- Seek recommendations and feedback on course materials and the design of assignments;
- Consider and integrate newer resources, digital media and varied means of communication and idea representation so learners perceive that course content is relevant, engaging and relates to their need for ongoing education.
Learners gain much when their responsible interactions and efforts are valued and support all members of the learning community within an online course. Kathryn Miller noted in a recent study that students’ sense of isolation diminished following the creation of an online community and interactions with their instructor and peers. It may require much time and thought, but establishing Communities of Inquiry with online learners has immense benefits.
This is the third in a five-part series by Susan Farber on creating a nurturing online learning environment. To read the first two installments and preview the rest of the series, please click here.
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